NEW! Pharmacopeia of Flowers: Foods, Drinks, Health & Beauty
Flower Essential Oils
Oil |oil| noun
1 a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, esp. for use as a fuel or lubricant.
• [with adj.] any of various thick, viscous, typically flammable liquids that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents and are obtained from animals or plants : potatoes fried in vegetable oil.
• a liquid preparation used on the hair or skin as a cosmetic : suntan oil.
• Chemistry: any of a group of natural esters of glycerol and various fatty acids that are liquid at room temperature. Compare with fat.
2 (often oils) oil paint : a portrait in oils.
verb [trans.] [often as adj.] (oiled)
lubricate or coat (something) with oil : a lightly oiled baking tray.
• impregnate or treat (something) with oil : her hair was heavily oiled.
ORIGIN Middle English : from Old Northern French olie, Old French oile, from Latin oleum ‘(olive) oil’ ; compare with olea ‘olive.’
Thesaurus: Oil (noun)
1 make sure the car has enough oil | we heat our house with oil: lubricant, lubrication, grease; crude, crude oil, fuel oil, petroleum; informal black gold; humorous Texas tea.
2 brown the beef in hot oil: cooking oil, vegetable oil; corn oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, canola oil, peanut oil.
3 add some oil to the bath water: bath oil, essential oil, baby oil, scented oil, suntan oil.
I'll oil that gate for you: lubricate, grease, smear/cover/rub with oil; informal lube.
Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing, or extraction (maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.
Rose Oil - a volatile fragrant oil obtained from fresh roses by steam distillation (byproduct is "Rose Water")
attar of roses, atar, athar, attar, ottar - essential oil or perfume obtained from flowers
Lavender Essential Oils
Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. Two forms are distinguished, lavender flower oil, a colorless oil, insoluble in water, having a density of 0.885 g/mL; and lavender spike oil, a distillate from the herb Lavandula latifolia, having density 0.905 g/mL. Lavender flower oil is a designation of the National Formulary and the British Pharmacopoeia. Like all essential oils, it is not a pure compound; it is a complex mixture of naturally occurring phytochemicals, including linalool and linalyl acetate. Kashmir Lavender oil is famous for being produced from lavender at the foothills of the Himalayas. As of 2011, the biggest lavender oil producer in the world is Bulgaria.
Lavender oil, which has long been used in the production of perfume, can also be used in aromatherapy. The scent has a calming effect which may aid in relaxation and the reduction of anxiety and stress. Lasea capsules containing lavender oil with a high amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, termed Silexan by the manufacturer, are approved as an anxiolytic in Germany. The approval is based on a finding that the capsules are comparable in effect to low-dose lorazepam.
It may also help to relieve pain from tension headache when breathed in as vapor or diluted and rubbed on the skin. When added to a vaporizer, lavender oil may aid in the treatment of cough and respiratory infection.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the aster or sunflower family Asteraceae.
Sunflower Seed Oil
Sunflower oil, extracted from the seeds, is used for cooking, as a carrier oil and to produce margarine and biodiesel, as it is cheaper than olive oil. A range of sunflower varieties exist with differing fatty acid compositions; some 'high oleic' types contain a higher level of monounsaturated fats in their oil than even olive oil. The oil is used for food, cooking, medicine and cosmetics. You can even make your own oil with an expellor.
Nearly everyone knows you can eat sunflower seeds. There are actually two general kinds of seeds. There are black seeds with a white stripe; the ones you usually buy in the store. Then there are Sunflower seeds that are smaller and totally black. Those are used for oil (and those that don't make the oil grade end up in bird seed). The seeds can be roasted and eaten as a snack or, raw, ground into a meal to thicken soups and stews. Roasted hulls can be used to make a brew similar to coffee. But there's more to eat on a sunflower than just the seeds, no matter which kind.
Sunflower "whole seed" (fruit) are sold as a snack food, raw or after roasting in ovens, with or without salt and/or seasonings added. Sunflowers can be processed into a peanut butter alternative, sunflower butter. In Germany, it is mixed with rye flour to make Sonnenblumenkernbrot (literally: sunflower whole seed bread), which is quite popular in German-speaking Europe. It is also sold as food for birds and can be used directly in cooking and salads.
2 types of sunflowers are grown in the United States: Oilseed & Confectionery
- Oilseed sunflower seeds are small and black with a high oil content. They are processed into oil and meal.
- Confectionery sunflower seeds are large black and white seeds which are roasted and for snacks and breads.
There are now 3 types of commonly used sunflower seeds: linoleic (most common), high oleic, and NuSun. Each variety has its own unique levels of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats.
NuSun™ Monounsaturated Sunflower Oil
NuSun™ is a mid-range oleic (monounsaturated) sunflower oil. It needs no hydrogenation and has a 9 percent saturated fat level. NuSun™ is extremely functional for frying applications and has a good balance of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that enhances the taste of products.
Sunflower Massage Oils
Sunflower Oil is light and absorbs quickly into the skin making it ideal for massage. It is an affordable carrier oil that blends nicely with other carrier oils as well as essential oils. When compared to other carrier oils, Sunflower Oil has one of the highest contents of Vitamin E, a known antioxidant. Antioxidants keep the skin protected against harmful free radicals that cause premature aging and other health problems.
Sunflower Oil also has a wealth of essential unsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, as well as vital minerals and vitamins. Sunflower Oil works well with all skin types, but is especially beneficial for acne-prone, inflamed skin. It is a wonderful moisturizer and works to keep dry, prematurely aged, and damaged skin properly hydrated.
- Affordable, all-purpose carrier oil that's great to have on hand
- Light viscosity and quickly absorbs into skin making it ideal for massage
- Highest content of vitamin E, a known antioxidant that protects against premature aging and other health problems, when compared to all other carrier oils
- Superb emollient moisturizing dry, cracked skin
- Soothes skin inflammations like eczema and acne
- So gentle that is used as a protectant for a baby's delicate skin
- Protects the skin against harmful UVA rays that cause sunburn
- Beautifies the skin by reducing the appearance of scars, wrinkles and stretch marks
This recipe involves having some pre-made Dandelion products but it is delicious beyond belief and is guaranteed to convict any skeptic about the culinary virtues of Dandelion.
- 1-1/2 cup olive oil
- 3/4 cup Dandelion vinegar
- 4 cloves garlic
- 1/2 tsp sea salt
- 2 Tbsp Dandelion Mustard (or Dijon)
- 3 Tbsp Dandelion Blossom syrup
- 2 cups fresh, chopped Dandelion greens
Whiz everything together in a blender or food processor.
Aloe Vera for Beauty & Cosmetics
Aloe vera is now used on facial tissues, where it is promoted as a moisturiser and/or anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose of users suffering hay-fever or cold. It is common practice for cosmetic companies to add sap or other derivatives from Aloe vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream or shampoos. Other uses for extracts of aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep, as a fresh food preservative, or for water conservation in small farms. It has also been suggested that biofuels could be obtained from Aloe vera seeds. Aloe is also used as a food substance, possibly for its gelling properties.
Preparations made from the plant Aloe vera are often referred to as "aloe vera". Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory. Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties of aloe vera. Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotions, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts, although at certain doses, it has toxic properties when used either for ingested or topical applications.
Looking for an all-natural toothpaste for those pearly whites? If you question what chemicals could be lurking in those brand name toothpastes, here’s an easy DIY project that wil yield refreshing, non-toxic aloe vera toothpaste gel. All you need is four ingredients: aloe vera gel (it’s best if you get it straight from the plant), baking soda, vegetable glycerin and fresh mint. In just five minutes you’ll have a soothing, antibacterial toothpaste that’s good for you and your teeth.
Making your own toothpaste is much easier than it seems. All you need is a juicy Aloe Vera plant and two or three items from the store: baking soda and vegetable glycerin - which are easy to find and cost just a few dollars. The third item is fresh mint, which is easy to grow in your garden - so if you have some homegrown mint on hand, even better. Aloe Vera has plenty of goodness: it’s fresh, digestive, it is used as moisturizer and for treating wounds, and it is antibacterial and soothing.
Looking more like a fresh gel than the white paste we squeeze and taste every morning (which is more often than not full of ingredients that are unnecessary and even harmful), this refreshing mix has only four ingredients, and takes five minutes and zero (electric) energy to make! Get a new jump start on your day, and read on to see how to make Aloe Vera toothpaste - your kids can even help you whip up a batch!
- Find Aloe Vera (Grow Aloe in a pot by your Kitchen Sink): You can either buy or plant an Aloe Vera plant, or check around your neighborhood, at parks, and ask friends and family if they know where any Aloe Vera plants are located. Aloe is plentiful and very easy to find - and while most species are edible, double-check your finds (as some types of Aloe Vera have laxative effects).
- Gather The Ingredients:
- 3 tsp. of aloe vera gel
- 5 tsp. of baking soda
- 5 tsp. of vegetable glycerin
- freshly chopped mint
- Cut the Aloe Vera: First things first: cut off the spikes and open through the fleshy leaf with a sharp knife.
- Get The Gel: Scrape the gel with a spoon or knife.
- Smash The Gel: Use a knife to chop the Aloe Vera gel into small juicy bits.
- Chop the Mint: Chop a bit of mint very finely for flavor, or you can add 10 drops of eucalyptus, peppermint, cinnamon or spearmint oil.
- Mix everything: Mix the Aloe Vera gel with the mint, add 5 tsp. of baking soda and 5 tsp. of vegetable glycerin, mix again.
- Pack it: You could reuse an empty cream pot or buy one that you like, glass is preferable for purity, but plastic is better for traveling with the Aloe Vera toothpaste you made yourself.
Cosmetic Flower Oils
The unique cosmetic and magical powers of flower oils have long been recognised. The Egyptian Queens, Cleopatra and Hatshepsut, who were famed for their beauty and magnetic attractiveness were well aware of the properties of many flower oils.
Flower oils are the ideal means to care about your skin, whatever age you are. Apart from their highly efficient cosmetic effect, they have a positive impact on mental well-being and personal energy. Vitamins, microelements, proteins and fatty acids found in grape-stone, almond and jojoba wax oils norurish, moisturize and regenerate the skin adding to its elasticity, reslience and young looks.
- Bigardia (Citrus aurantium) oil is a natural alternative for the hormone which helps the skin. Its magical, spicy-fruity fragrance enriched by the musk presence also works as an aphrodisiac, due to the presence of pheromones similar to those in women. Bigardia improves sensitivity and sexual happiness through the harmonisation of relationships.
- Camomile flower oil nourishes and soothes dry, irritated skin. Helps cure inflammation and allergic reactions, strengthens the blood vessels and helps prevent cuperosis. Its pungent and bitter scent has a pacifying and stabilizing effect on the nervous system and is very useful during the toughest life periods.
- Comb-Honey oil warms and nourishes pale, dry and exhausted skin. It speeds up the restorative process in the skin cells, leaving it fresh and healthy. the sunny honey fragrance soothes the nervous system, giving a warm sensation of harmony and happiness.
- Hyacinth petal oil has a beneficial effect on all skin types and promotes a better look. A bright scent of jasmine and lily fantasy gets deep into the heart, warming it with the loving sensation of happiness. This marvellous fragrance encourages creativity, intuition and self-esteem.
- Jasmine Petal oil is beneficial for all skin types. This tones and softens the skin and helps cell regeneration. It's exotic, nearly intoxicating fragarance raises the spirits and produces a euphoric and loving feeling at any time. It also helps to give pleasant dreams.
- Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. Two forms are distinguished, lavender flower oil, a colorless oil, insoluble in water, having a density of 0.885 g/mL; and lavender spike oil, a distillate from the herb Lavandula latifolia, having density 0.905 g/mL. Lavender flower oil is a designation of the National Formulary and the British Pharmacopoeia. Like all essential oils, it is not a pure compound; it is a complex mixture of naturally occurring phytochemicals, including linalool and linalyl acetate. Kashmir Lavender oil is famous for being produced from lavender at the foothills of the Himalayas. As of 2011, the biggest lavender oil producer in the world is Bulgaria.
- Mimosa Flower oil is good for sensitive and irritable skin, improving its protective function leaving it looking young and fresh. The tender fragrance has a peaceful, harmonizing effect and helps to do away with tiredness, so aiding relaxation.
- Melissa oil is used to treat acne and oily skin. It smoothes the colour and improves elasticity to make it look younger. Fresh Melissa aroma is good for those who are melancholic or easily irritable. It helps improve sleep patterns. This oil is often used during the menopause and during pregnancy and lactation.
- Neroli oil regenerates the skin, improves its elasticity, reduces skin pores, helps eliminate stains caused by stress and has a clear lifiting effect. Its exquisite multi-layer flower aroma fights anxiety, improves the spirits. In ancient lore neroli oil is known as "... the oil of Queens and courtesans"
- Rose Petal oil regereates the skin and makes it look younger. It fortifies the capillaries and soothes redness and irritation. Tender rosy aroma has a warm aura, turning the heart towards love. Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, with the absolute being used more commonly in perfumery. Even with their high price and the advent of organic synthesis, rose oils are still perhaps the most widely used essential oil in perfumery.
- Tuberose flower oil freshens the skin, leaving it soft and young looking. Its mysteriously sensual fragrace charms you and carries you away into the world of sweet dreams.
- Verbena Petal oil has a refined and fresh fragrance. It fights skin ageing, has a visible anti-wrinkle effect and is a strong anti-oxidant. Various magical qualities have always been assigned to verbena; it is one of the 12 plants honoured by the "Rosenkreizer" order for its healing powers. It has a purifying effect, improves vitality and gives way to elevated thoughts.
- Agar oil or oodh, distilled from Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Highly prized for its fragrance.
- Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of Bishop's weed (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35-65% thymol.
- Angelica root oil, distilled from the Angelica archangelica.
- Anise oil, from the Pimpinella anisum, rich odor of licorice, used medicinally.
- Asafoetida, used medicinally and to flavor food.
- Balsam oil, from the Myroxylon pereirae.
- Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
- Bay oil is used in perfumery; Aromatherapeutic for sprains, colds, flu, insomnia, rheumatism.
- Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
- Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum. The warm, soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains.
- Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
- Birch is aromatheapeutic for gout, Rheumatism, Eczema, Ulcers.
- Camphor is used for cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, and arthritis
- Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles.
- Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent.
- Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc.
- Carrot seed oil (essential oil), used in aromatherapy.
- Cedarwood oil, primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.
- Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy - Roman and German. Both have similar healing properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).
- Calamus Root, used medicinally
- Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.
- Cistus species
- Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.
- Clary Sage
- Clove leaf oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.
- Coffee, used to flavor food.
- Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), from the Tanacetum balsamita
- Costus Root, used medicinally
- Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
- Cubeb, used medicinally and to flavor foods.
- Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.
- Curry leaf, used medicinally and to flavor food.
- Davana oil, from the Artemisia pallens, used as a perfume ingredient and as a germicide.
- Dill oil, chemically almost identical to caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
- Elecampane, used medicinally.
- Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses.
- Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.
- Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.
- Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes. The essential oil of frankincense is produced by steam distillation of the tree resin. The oil's chemical components are 75% monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenoles, sesquiterpenols, and ketones. It has a good balsamic sweet fragrance, while the Indian frankincense oil has a very fresh smell. Contrary to recent claims, steam or hydro distilled frankincense oil does not contain any boswellic acid as these components (triterpenoids) are non-volatile and too large to come over in the steam distillation process. The chemistry of the essential oil is mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes with small amounts of diterpenoid components being the upper limit in terms of molecular weight.
- Galangal, used medicinally and to flavor food.
- Geranium oil, used medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy, used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil.
- Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures.
- Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.
- Henna oil, used medicinally.
- Hickory nut oil
- Horseradish oil
- Idaho Tansy
- Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
- Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.
- Laurus nobilis
- Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally.
- Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics.
- Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highy fragrant grass from India. In India, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
- Lime, anti septic, anti viral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic.
- Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
- Melaleuca See Tea tree oil
- Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.
- Mentha arvensis oil/Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications.
- Mountain Savory
- Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.
- Mustard oil (essential oil), containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
- Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.
- Neem oil or Neem Tree Oil
- Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
- Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.
Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems.
- Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris (Iris florentina) and used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally.
- Palo Santo
- Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances.
- Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
- Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50-60% perillaldehyde.
- Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.
- Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.
- Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
- Red Cedar
- Roman Chamomile
- Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.
- Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta. Used medicinally.
- Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of Rosmarinus officinalis. Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and antifungal properties.
- Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.
- Sage oil, used medicinally.
- Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance.
- Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia.
- Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.
- Schisandra oil, from Schisandra chinensis, used medicinally.
- Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
- Spikenard, used medicinally.
- Spruce has calming and elevating properties. It can be used as a topical application for muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, and rheumatism. Spruce Oil has also been used to improve breathing conditions of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, and general weakness.
- Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
- Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus, used medicinally.
- Tea tree oil, distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, used medicinally. Being a powerful antiseptic, antibacterial, and antiviral agent, tea tree's ability to fight infection is excellent.
- Thyme oil, used medicinally.
- Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family. It is used as analgesic, antirheumatic, blood cleanser, and stimulant. It treats cough, respiratory conditions, kidney ailments, urinary infections.
- Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food
- Valerian is used for insomnia, migraines, nervous dyspepsia, and dandruff.
- Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy
- Western red cedar
- Wintergreen can be used as an analgesic, anodyne, anti rheumatic & anti arthritic, anti spasmodic, anti septic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emenagogue and stimulant
- Yarrow oil is used medicinally, to relieve joint pain
- Ylang-ylang is used for calming, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac purposes, as well as hypertension and skin diseases.
- Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food
Essential Oil Books
- Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism (ISBN 1852307218) 1995
- The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy
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